Prediction of Job Stress among Employees through the Dimensions of Time Management Skills by Managers
1∗ Bita Ajilchi, 2 Flor Rezaei Kargar
1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human Science, Science and Research Branch University, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran
2Department of Psychology and Social Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran
Corresponding Author Email: *Ajilchi_b@yahoo.com
This study attempted to predict employee job stress and its dimensions through the time management skills of managers. The research was descriptive-correlational method. The statistical population comprises all the employees at all the branches of the Islamic Azad University in Tehran during the academic year 2009-2010. The sample consisted of 102 individuals (30 managers and 72 employees) from the Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Central Tehran Branch (Vali-Asr University Complex), selected through a random cluster procedure. The research instruments were a time management skills’ questionnaire by Karami Moghadam (1998) for managers and a job stress questionnaire by Kamkari (2006) for the employees. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, linear regression and multiple regressions were applied for data analysis. The results of analysis showed that there was a significantly negative correlation between the time management skills of managers and employee stress at P<0.05, regarded as a good predictor. In addition, the meetings’ management and job stress, as well as physical stress and organizational stress, (dimensions of job stress), of the employees were significantly correlated at P<0.05, regarded as a good predictor. Furthermore, after entrusting the time management, it was in a significantly negative correlation with employee organizational stress, being capable of prediction (P<0.05).
Keywords: time management skills, managers, job stress, employees
Since the late twentieth century, job stress has been one of the important social issues attracting a great deal of attention (Vaananen, Anttila, Turtiainen and Varje, 2012). In fact, stress is an underlying concept for the psychological improvement of the life-structure, in terms of occupational health (Vaananen et al., 2012). According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), job stress occurs when there is no coordination between environmental needs and abilities, capabilities and wishes (Greenberg, 2004).
From the standpoint of cognitive approach, stress is a response to emotional arousal given out to environmental stressors perceived by a person as danger or fear (Lazarous and Folkman 1984, Auerbach, Quick and Pegg, 2003). If psychological job stress becomes excessive, it will lead to physical, psychological and behavioral complications in an individual; the physical symptoms include a higher heart rate, increased blood pressure, heart disease, digestive disorders, sleep disorders, headaches and impairment of the immune system (Chen and Wong 2005). In this regard, a longitudinal study from 2009 to 2012 demonstrated that, not only is there a significant relationship between a psychologically stressful environment and muscular/skeletal problems, but the environmental stressors also increase skeletal problems (Lang, Ochsmann, Kraus and Lang, 2012).
In its psychological dimension, job stress is diagnosed based on several symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, feelings of hopelessness, loneliness and job dissatisfaction, (Bartram, Joinoer and Stanton, 2004). In the behavioral dimension, it is accompanied by absenteeism, aggression and troublesome behavior toward other people (Dubrin, 1992), increased accidents at work, absenteeism and burnout (Villanueva and Djurkovic, 2009). Studies in this area have shown that occupational stressors can cause distraction, impaired concentration and memory, uncertainty in performing ordinary tasks and degraded decision-making capability (Goldenhar, 2003). In addition, job stress may leave negative effects on families and family life (Caulfield, Chang, Dollard and Elshaug, 2004). This implies that job stress is not limited to the workplace, but also extends to other environments.
Cooper and Cartwright (1997) divided the job-related stressors into three categories as follows: 1) occupational stressors; 2) individual stressors; 3) organizational stressors (Khatibi, Asadi and Hamid, 2009).
Depending on the nature of the job, the occupational stressors cover a variety of tasks and the contributing factors, such as temperature, noise and restrictions (Jewell, 1998). Studied far more than other factors, the individual stressors encompass the excessive workload, high work rate, role conflict, role ambiguity, poor interpersonal relationships and inadequate social support (Ivancevich and Matteson, 2002). Organizational stressors cover the culture, internal management problems, lack of individual participation in decision-making, poor communication, lack of job security, corporate policies and a totalitarian leadership style (Palmer, Cooper and Thomas, 2003). Studies have shown that individual positive perception of organizational support ratio will lead to improved job performance (Chiang and Hsieh, 2012).
In this regard, Li, Chen, Wu and Sung (2001), as well as Ghosh and Bhattacherjee (2004), proved in their studies that there is a significant relationship between stressful job handling and occupational injuries. Mino, Shigemi, Tsda, Yasouda and Bebbington (1999) reported in their study that high job stress in individuals tends to increase the risk of mental illness.
Statistics show that stress and its complications cause the loss of hundreds of working days every year; i.e. an average of one million people daily refrain from attending the workplace due to stress-related disorders and illness. In this regard, another study shows that 4% of the work hours lost because of absenteeism are related to stress and job dissatisfaction (Seward, 2004). Furthermore, numerous studies are indicative of the role of job stressors in 37% of accidents and injuries which occurred in industry and organizations (Blanchard, Hickling, Galovski and Veazey, 2002).
In this regard, one of the important issues highly emphasized by organizational psychology involves time management. In fact, time management refers to identification of the needs and demands, categorizing them according to priorities and devoting time and resources (Macan, Janet and GIbson 2010). Time management is a skill for the managers of organizations, including the optimal use of skills adopted by a manager in the optimal use of time and the achievement of organizational goals in connection with the performance of professional duties (Hafezi, Naghibi, Naderi, Najafi and Mahmoud, 2008), which encompasses several skills: the prioritization of tasks and objectives, delegation, communication management and meetings’ management.
Mackenzie (2006) argued about the importance of prioritizing the tasks; that the key to success lies in time management, where the most important tasks are addressed before any other. It is a daily feature of time management to plan and prioritize. Mahdikhani (2000) regarded a good manager as a person who frees himself from repetitive tasks and routines, which requires delegation. Moreover, Eslami (1994) argued that one of the main reasons for the wastage of time is “the inability to communicate with others”. Alvani (2006) deemed a waste of time as giving a positive response to everything because it gives the managers a large volume of requests that may not be completely fulfilled. Furthermore, Lockett (1994) believes that the meetings take a lot of management time and “meetings management” is an art requiring time management. Hoefyster (1981; quoted by Javaherizadeh, 2005) investigated the relationship between time management and stress, where there were several factors such as paperwork, visitors, unnecessary phone calls and colleagues needing contributions to an organizational waste of time. Therefore, having these skills could very well eliminate many sources of job stress and reduce its negative effects. Evidently, the management puts an emphasis on avoiding unnecessary work, efficiency, organization and delegation of authority and management of the meetings.
Time management leads to increased awareness of available time and duties as planned and performed more effectively, thereby to achieve maximum productivity (Helesten 1999, Kleshinski, 2005; quoted by Nazem, 2008; Arnold and Pulich 2006). Meanwhile, time management affects the mental health of individuals, thus curtailing the psychosomatic problems and work-related stress (Davari, Alhani, Anousheh and Khalil Abadi, 2008, Zampetakis, Bouranta and Moustakis, 2010). In this regard, Baezzat and Adib Rad (2004), Garmeh (2004), Hashemizadeh (2006), Nemati and Parsayee (2009), Ajilchi and Karimi (2011) demonstrated in their research that there is a significant relationship between job stress and time management. In addition, Adams and Jex (2000) found that time management techniques are effective in reducing work-family conflict. In this regard, Jackson and Alakva Jex and Elacqua (2000) have reported the moderating effect on the relationship between work and family time management and conflicts with family.
Based on the above findings, it can be argued that time management is an effective strategy to reduce work-related stress, which in turn facilitates the utilization of resources and is a solution to achieve personal goals, ultimately leading to an efficient use of time and a more comfortable life. Given the role of time management, Edwards (2006; quoted by Nazem, 2008) pointed out that the need for the development and application of formal education and attention to time management and stress management in higher education institutions is essential.
According to the principle of efficiency and the promotion of physical and mental health in the workplace, it is a crucial measure in optimizing business operations, to increase productivity and prevent accidents so identifying the direct effects of stress on the performance of employees (Cooper and Philips, 2004). Hence, it is more vital than ever to do more research into this area so as to discover the relevant factors contributing to the negative effects of job stress on occupational productivity at organizations and agencies.
For that purpose, the current study focused on the time management skills and its dimensions as factors affecting job stress and its dimensions in employees so as to examine their inter-relationships. In this context, the following hypotheses were formulated:
1. Time management skills of managers can predict the job stress in employees.
2. Dimensions of time management skills of managers can predict the job stress in employees.
3. Dimensions of time management skills of managers can predict the physical stress in employees.
4. Dimensions of time management skills of managers can predict the organizational stress in employees.
5. Dimensions of time management skills of managers can predict the job nature stress in employees.
Method, statistical population, sample: This was descriptive-correlational research.The statistical population consisted of all employees (including managers and employees) working in Tehran’s Islamic Azad University branches during academic years 2009-2010. A certain number of employees at the Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Central Tehran Branch (Vali-Asr Complex) were selected by a random cluster procedure. Among different branches of the Islamic Azad University, the Tehran Central Branch and its Faculty of Literature and Humanities (Vali-asr Complex) were selected with a total of 30 managers and 72 employees being involved in the research.
Time Management Skills Questionnaire has been constructed by Karami Moghadam (1998). It comprises a total of forty items determining the level of time management skills and their six dimension (goal-setting, prioritization of objectives and activities, operational planning, delegation, communication and meetings’ management). The reliability of the Time Management Skills Scale by Karami Moghadam (1998) was calculated through test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha at 0.91. Moreover, the research by Garmeh (2004) reported a reliability of 0.97 for the time management skills’ scale at significant level of 0.001. In this study, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was obtained to be 0.67. For instance, two items in the questionnaire included: I always set accurate and specific goals for myself; I make a list of what I should do every day.
Job Stress Questionnaire has been constructed by Kamkari (2006), containing a total of 31 items determining the level of stress and its three dimensions; physical stress, organizational stress and job nature stress. The reliability of the Job Stress Scale by Kamkari (2006) was reported through test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha to be 0.77. In this study, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was found to be 0.94. Some of the items in the above questionnaire are as follows: dominance of relationships rather than regulations (for organizational stressors); growing occupational crowd (for the physical stressors) and increasing occupational sensitivity and precision (for the job nature stressors)
Procedure and Analysis
After visiting the selected Faculty and gaining the consent and cooperation of all the managers, the specific questionnaire for the time management skills for managers and the job stress questionnaire for employees were distributed and completed as individual and self-reports. At the next stage, the data were analyzed through several descriptive statistical measures such as mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics including the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, linear regression assisted by SPSS 16.
The hypothesis arguing that there is a relationship between the time management skills of managers and the job stress of employees was evaluated through the linear regression method. The correlation coefficient between the time management skills of managers and the job stress of employees indicated the required correlation (minimum 0.3) to assess the predictive power of employee job stress through the time management skills of managers by linear regression. The descriptive values for the two variables above and their inter-correlation have been displayed in Table (1).
Table 1. The descriptive values and correlation coefficient for time management skills of managers and employee job stress
|Variable||Mean||Standard deviation||Employee job stress|
|Time management skills of managers||130.40||8.54||*-0.36|
|Employee job stress||100.97||19.76||–|
As can be seen in Table 1, there is a significantly negative relationship between the time management skills of managers and the job stress of employees at P<0.05.
The significance level of the linear regression model for the prediction of employee job stress through the time management skills of managers have been displayed in Table 2.
Table 2. Linear regression for prediction of employee job stress through the time management of managers
|Source of variations||Sum of Squares||Degree of freedom||Mean of squares||F||Significance level|
With regard to Table 2 and the emphasis on the significant F value at P<0.05, it can be argued that there is a predictive power of employee job stress through the time management skills of managers. Hence, the regression coefficients were identified and explained by determining the table of regression coefficients.
Table 3. Regression for prediction of employee job stress through the time management skills of managers
|Criterion variable||Predictive variable||B||β||T||Sig|
|Employee job stress||Time management skills of managers||-0.97||0.36||2.06||0.048|
According to the linear regression coefficients in Table 3, it can be argued that the regression model involves the time management skills of managers negatively capable of explaining the significance of variance for employee job stress at P<0.05.
The hypotheses about the relationship between the dimensions of time management and the dimensions of employee job stress were evaluated through multiple regression analysis. The preliminary analyses were not carried out so as to ensure the assumption of normal distribution, linearity and dispersion homogeneity. The values of Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the dimensions of time management skills of managers indicated the needed correlation (maximum 0.7) for the variables to adopt the multiple regressions. The descriptive values and correlation coefficients between the variables under study have been shown in Table 4.
Table 4. The descriptive values and correlation coefficient for time management skills of managers and employee job stress
|Variable||Mean||Standard deviation||Organizational stress||Physical stress||Job nature stress||Job stress|
|Prioritization of goals and activities||24.50||2.89||-0.10||-0.25||0.08||-0.17|
|Job nature stress||26.66||4.22||–||–||–||–|
Considering Table 4 and the emphasis on the correlation coefficients, it can be argued that among the dimensions of time management, only the meetings’ management is in a significantly negatively correlation with job stress at P<0.05. Furthermore, from the evaluation of the relationship between the dimensions of time management and the dimensions of job stress, it was evident that goal-setting was in a significantly negative correlation with physical stress and delegation with organizational stress, meetings’ management with organizational stress and physical stress at P<0.05.
The significance level of the regression models for the prediction of employee job stress and its dimensions through the time management dimensions of managers have been displayed in Table 5.
Table 5. The multiple regressions for predicting the job stress and its dimensions through the dimensions of time management.
|Criterion variable||Predictive variable||Source of variations||Sum of Squares||df||Mean of squares||F||Sig|
|Job stress Employees||Time management dimensions of managers||Regression Residual||6651.97 8674.82||6 23||1108.66 377.16||2.93||0.028|
|Employee Organizational stress||Time management dimensions of managers||Regression Residual||2861.97 2735.22||6 23||476.99 118.92||4.01||0.007|
|Employee physical stress||Time management dimensions of managers||Regression Residual||1590.10 1995.75||6 23||265.01 86.77||3.05||0.024|
|Employee job nature stress||Time management dimensions of managers||Regression Residual||125.74 393.72||6 23||20.95 17.11||1.22||0.330|
Considering Table 5 and the emphasis on the F values, it can be argued that there is a predictive power of job stress, physical stress and employee organizational stress through the time management skills of managers at P<0.05. The regression coefficients were identified and explained for the significant relationships through determining the table for regression coefficients.
Table 6. Regression for prediction of employee job stress and its dimensions through the time management dimensions of managers
|Job stress||Organizational stress||Physical stress|
According to the multiple regression coefficients through the simultaneous import, it can be argued that meetings’ management was negatively capable of explaining a significant part of the variance in employee job stress at P<0.05. Furthermore, the level of beta coefficient at -0.57 suggests that only meetings’ management had the largest contribution in explaining the employees’ job stress.
In addition, the delegation and meeting management were negatively capable of predicting a significant portion of the variance in organizational stress at P<0.05. Since the beta coefficients for these variables were respectively 0.43 and -039, it can be argued that delegation by managers made a uniquely powerful contribution to explaining the employees’ organizational stress.
Moreover, meetings’ management was negatively capable of predicting a significant part of the variance in the physical stress of employees at P<0.05. Considering the level of beta coefficient at -0.56, it can be stated that only meetings’ management made the largest contribution in explaining the employees’ physical stress.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the time management skills of managers and employees’ job stress and their dimensions at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch. The findings in Table 1 indicated that time management skills were in a significantly negative correlation with employee job stress at P<0.05. According to Tables 2 and 3, it can be predicted; i.e. as the time management skills of managers are enhanced, there will be lower job stress among the employees and vice versa. Therefore, the first hypothesis is proved. This finding is consistent with those obtained by Davari et al. (2008), Zamptakis et al. (2010), Baezzat and Adib Rad (2004), Garmeh (2004), Hashemizadeh (2006), Nemati and Parsayee (2009), and Ajilchi and Karimi (2011). From the standpoint of cognitive approach, stress is a response to environmental stressors. Thus, according to Helsten (1999, Kelshinski (2005, as quoted by Nazem, 2008, Arnold and Pulich, 2006), the application of time management leads to an increased awareness of available time and more effective planning of result tasks, thus curtailing the environmental stress. Moreover, from the standpoint of Greenberg (2004), job stress is deemed to be the lack of coordination between the needs of the professional and personal skills and capabilities of the person, where the application of time management leads to appropriate planning and the efficient use of time, and coordination between job requirements and individual abilities, aimed at the reduction of stress. Since the managers of any department and organization play the most prominent role in guiding and monitoring the employees, they are essentially supposed to regulate the time for the optimal utilization for the accomplishment of tasks at hand. Thus, when the manager of a group acts desirably in maintaining and executing a systematic schedule, the employees will abide by the timing plan, be empowered to make the optimal use of time to carry out their jobs as best as possible. As a result, the stress caused by inadequate time for carrying out the working plans will be curtailed, and consequently there will be lower job stress among the employees.
According to Tables 3, 4 and 5 concerning the dimensions of time management, only meetings’ management is in a significantly negative correlation with employee job stress at P<0.05 with predictive power; i.e. any increase in meetings’ management will reduce stress among employees. Hence, the second hypothesis was confirmed only for meeting management. The result is consistent with that obtained by Lockett (1994). Lockett (1994) believed that the meetings take a lot of management time and “meetings management” is an art requiring time management. Accordingly, it can be stated that a manager able to adjust the meetings well and put in an appropriate amount of time, start and end the meetings at the scheduled times will, of course, find more time to deal with the rest of the duties and affairs. Moreover, the manager will have more time to respond to the employees concerning their tasks and problems, perform more efficiently and eventually curtail the stressors caused by occupational operation, particularly where the manager consultation and command are necessary. As confirmed in the next hypotheses, this holds true concerning the organizational and physical dimensions of job stress.
A closer look at the results of Tables 3, 4 and 5 will indicate that, among the dimensions of time management, delegation and meetings’ management are in a significantly negative correlation with employee job stress at P<0.05 with predictive power. Hence, the third hypothesis is confirmed for delegation and meeting management. According to the results, it seems that organizational stressors proposed by Ivansovich and Mattsson (2002) and Palmer et al. (2003) are lowered in employees through managerial delegation, which is consistent with the findings of Mahdikhani (2000). Furthermore, it is consistent with the opinion of Cooper and Cartwright (1997) who believed that when the employee bears an excessive burden and there is no managerial delegation, the job stress will intensify. In addition, meetings’ management by managers can curtail the organizational stress imposed on employees. Similar to the previous hypothesis, it is consistent with findings of Lockett (1994) in the dimension of meetings’ management.
The information contained in Tables 3, 4 and 5 also show that among the dimensions of time management, only meetings’ management is in a significantly negative relationship with employee physical stress at P<0.05 with predictive power. Hence, the fourth hypothesis is confirmed for management meetings, consistent, like the previous hypotheses, with the findings of Lockett (1994). It seems that appropriate meetings’ management by managers will curtail the occupational crowd of individuals caused by delay in holding the sessions or even complete cancellation, commotion, noise and potential objections, thereby to provide the employees with peace of mind for carrying out their tasks.
Other findings in Tables 3, 4 and 5 suggest that none of the dimensions of time management skills were significantly correlated with the job-nature stress among employees at P<0.05, which is inconsistent with the findings of Cooper and Cartwright (1997). Their research showed that managers can curtail the employees’ job stress by giving out a wider scope of operation and opportunities for utilizing the skills. It seems that individuals in the sample regard the nature of job as an individual aspect where the managers and their time management skills play no key role.
It is beneficial to consider the role of moderating factors such as personality, experience strategies, age, sex, attitudes, education and experience, and social support groups, friends and colleagues, as well as comparisons between academic units in terms of time management practices for generalizing the results concerning the employees’ job stress. According to the results, teaching time management skills to managers and the stress coping skills to employees can raise awareness and reduce the adverse effects.
Adams, G.A. & Jex, S.M. (2000). Relationships between time management, control, work-family conflict, and strain. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(1), 72-7.
Ajilchi, B. & Karimi, Y. (2013). Relation between time management skill of managers and job stress employers in EAST AZAD University of Tehran. Journal of Research in Education Systems, 9 (23), 45-63 (Persian).
Arnold, E. & Pulich, M. (2006). Improving productivity through more effective time management. Journal of Health Care Management, 23, 65-70.
Alvani, M. (2006). Tricks of time organizational knowledge. Management Journal, 3 (21), 5-12 (Persian).
Auerbach, S. M., Quick, B.G., & Pegg, P.O. (2003). General Job Stress and Job- Specific Stress in juvenile correctional officers Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 25-26.
Baezzat, F. & Adib Rad, N. (2004). A study on the relationship between time management and job stress among female employees at Alzahra University. A research project, funded by Shahid Beheshti University(Persian).
Batram, T., Joinoer, A.T., & Stanton, P. (2004). Factors Affecting the Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Australian Nurses: Implications for recruitment and retention. Stress Management, 17(3), 293-303.
Blanchard, E., Hickling, E., Galovski, T., & Veazey, C. (2002). Emergency room vital signs and PTSD in a treatment seeking sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. Journal of Trauma Stress, 15(3), 199–204.
Caulfield, N., Chang, D., Dollard, M. F., & Elshaug, C. (2004). A Review of Occupational Stress Interventions in Australia. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 149-166.
Chen, W. Q, Yu, I.T.S., & Wong, T.W. (2005). Impact of occupational stress and other psychosocial factors on musculoskeletal pain among Chinese offshore oil installation workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62, 251 – 256.
Chiang, C.F. & Hsieh, T.S. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 180-190.
Cooper, C.L. & Cartwright, S. (1997). An intervention Strategy for Work place Stress. Journal of Psychosomatic research, 43(1), 7-19.
Cooper, M., Phillips, R. (2004). Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of Safety Research, 35(5), 497-512.
Davari, A., Alhani, F., Anooshe, M., & Khlilabadi, T. (2008). How students study time management. Journal of Kerman University Med Science, 11(1), 76-84 (Persian).
Dubrin, A. J. (1992). Human Relations: A job oriented approach (5th ed.). Englewood: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Eslami, S. (1994). Occupational management for time. 2nd ed. Tabriz: Farhangi Publications (Persian).
Garmeh, F. (2004). The relationship between time management skills with levels of job stress among the educational managers at high-schools in Boroujerd, during academic years 2002-2003. MA thesis, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (Persian).
Ghosh, A.K. & Bhattacherjee, C.N. (2004). Relationships of working conditions and individual characteristics to occupational injuries: a case control study in coal miners. Journal of Occupational Health, 46 (6), 470-80.
Goldenhar, K. (2003). Modeling relationships between job stressors and injury and near-miss – for construction laborers. Journal of Work Stress, 17(3), 218–240.
Greenberg, J. (2004). Stress fairness to fare no stress: Managing Workplace Stress by promoting organization justice. Organizational Dynamic, 33(4), 352 – 365.
Hafezi, S., Naghibi H., Naderi A., M. & Mahmoudi, H. (2008). A study on the relationship between individual skills and organizational behavior of time management among
Educational managers. Behavioral Sciences Journal, 2 (2), 183-192 ( Persian).
Hashemizadeh, H. (2006). Relationship between time management behavior and stress among the interior and surgical head nurses at teaching hospitals affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. Journal of Mental Health, 29 and 30, 51-56 (Persian).
Ivancevich, J.M. & Matteson, M.T. (2002). Organizational behavior and management (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Jewell, L. N. (1998). Contemporary industrial/organizational psychology (3th ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks, Cole.
Jex, S.M. & Elacqua, T.C. (2000). Time management as a moderator of relations between stressors and employee strain. Journal of Work & Stress, 13(2), 182-191.
Javaherizadeh N. (205 A.H.). A study on the characteristics and skills of time management at high-schools in Tehran as compared to the desirable status. Daneshvar Journal, 12, 13-28 ( Persian).
Kamkari, K. (2006). A study on the job stressors among employees at NIOPDC. A research project, NIOPDC(Persian).
Karami Moghadam, F. (1998). A study on the relationship between individual skill of time management and organizational skill among the high-school principals in Shiraz. Master’s Thesis, University of Shiraz (Persian).
Khatibi, A. Asadi , H., & Hamidi, M.(2009). The relationship between Job stress and organizational Commitment in National Olympic and Paralympics Academy. Word Journal of Sport Sciences, 2(4), 272-278 (Persian).
Lang, J., Ochsmann, E., Kraus, T., & Lang, J.(2012). Psychosocial work stressors as antecedents of musculoskeletal problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis of stability-adjusted longitudinal studies, Journal of Social Science & Medicine, 75(7), 1163-1174.
Lauzarous, R.S., Folkman, S. (1984). Stress appraisal and coping (1th ed.). New York: Springer.
Li, C.Y., Chen, K.R., Wu, C.H., & Sung, F.C. (2001). Job stress and dissatisfaction in association with non-fatal injuries on the job in a cross-sectional sample of petrochemical workers. Journal of Occupational Med, 51(1), 50-55.
Lockett, J. (1992). Efficient Management. Translated by seyed Aminollah Alavai (1994). (1th ed.). Tehran: Public Administration Center.
Macan, T., Janet, M., & Gibson, J. (2010). Cunningham, management, Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 725-730.
MacKenzie, A. (1997). Productive Time Management. Translated by Mohammadreza Rezapour (2006) (5th ed.). Tehran: Cham.
Mahdikhani, A. (2000). Traits of a successful manager. Tadbir Magazine, 110, 124.
Mino, Y., Shigemi, J., Tsda, T., Yasouda, N., & Bebbington, P. (1999). Perceived job stress and mental health in precision machine workers of Japan: a 2 year Cohort study. Journal of Occupational Environment Medicine, 56, 41-45.
Nazem, F. (2008). Time management among the Islamic Azad University branches. Fresh Thoughts in Educational Sciences Quarterly, third year, 3, 11-24 (Persian).
Nemati, M. Parsayee, M. S. (2009). Correlation between stress and time management, Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 19, (71), 84-85 (Persian).
Palmer, S., Cooper, C., Thomas, K. (2003). Revised model of organizational stress for use within stress prevention/management and wellbeing programs – brief update. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 41(2), 57-8.
Seward, J.P. (2004). Occupational stress. In: LaDou J, (Eds). Journal of Current occupational & environmental medicine. (3th ed.). (pp, 603-18). New York: MC Grow Hill,.
Vaananen, A., Anttila, K., Turtiainen, J., & Varje, P. (2012). Formulation of work stress in 1960–2000: Analysis of scientific works from the perspective of historical sociology. Journal of Social Science &Medicine, 75 (5), 784–794.
Villanueva, D. & Djurkovic, N. (2009). Occupational Stress and Intention to Leave Among Employees in Small and Medium Enterprises. International Journal of Stress Management, 16 (2), 124-137.
Zampetakis, L.A., Bouranta, N., & Moustakis, V.S. (2010). Management, Journal of Thinking Skills and Creativity, 5 (1), 23-32.